Idaho is a northwestern U.S. UU. State known for its mountainous landscapes and vast expanses of protected wilderness and outdoor recreational areas. The capital, Boise, is located in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains and is crossed by the Boise River, which is popular for rafting and fishing.
Julia Davis Park, located in front of the river, is a green space in the center of the city that contains a rose garden, museums and a zoo. The History of Idaho is an examination of human history and social activity within the state of Idaho, one of the United States of America located in the Pacific Northwest area near the west coast of the United States and Canada. Other partner areas include Southern Alaska, all of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Western Montana, and Northern California and Nevada. Humans may have been present in Idaho for 16,600 years.
Recent findings at Cooper's Ferry along the Salmon River in western Idaho, near the city of Cottonwood, have uncovered stone tools and fragments of animal bones in what may be the oldest evidence of humans in North America. Earlier excavations in 1959 at Wilson Butte Cave, near Twin Falls, revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, which are among the oldest dated artifacts in North America. The Native American tribes that dominated the area in historic times included the Nez Perce and Coeur d'Alene in the north; and the Shoshone and Bannock peoples of the north and west in the south. The perspective of missionary work among Native Americans also attracted the first settlers to the region.
In 1809, the Kullyspell House was built, the first white-owned establishment and the first trading post in Idaho. In 1836, Reverend Henry H. Spalding established a Protestant mission near Lapwai, where he printed the first Northwest book, established Idaho's first school, developed its first irrigation system, and grew the state's first potatoes. Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Hart Spalding were the first non-native women to enter present-day Idaho.
Cataldo Mission, Idaho's oldest standing building, was built in Cataldo by the Coeur d'Alene and the Catholic missionaries. In 1842, Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, with Fr. Charles Duet, selected a mission site along the St. The mission was moved a short distance in 1846, as the original location was subject to flooding.
In 1850, Antonio Ravalli designed a new mission building and the Indians affiliated with the church effort built the mission, without nails, using the acacia and smearing method. Over time, Cataldo's mission became an important stop for merchants, settlers and miners. It served as a place to rest from the trail, provided the necessary supplies and was a working port for boats climbing the Coeur d'Alene River. While thousands of people passed through Idaho on the Oregon Trail or during the California Gold Rush of 1849, few people settled there.
In 1860, the first of several Idaho gold rushes began in Pierce, in present-day Clearwater County. By 1862, settlements had been formed both in the north and in the south around the mining boom. The missionaries of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints founded Fort Lemhi in 1855, but the settlement did not last. The first city organized in Idaho was Franklin, populated in April 1860 by Mormon pioneers who believed they were in Utah territory; although a later survey determined that they had crossed the border.
Mormon pioneers arrived in areas near present-day Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming and established most of the historic and modern communities in southeastern Idaho. These settlements include Ammon, Blackfoot, Chubbuck, Firth, Idaho Falls, Iona, Pocatello, Rexburg, Rigby, Shelley and Ucon. A large number of English immigrants settled in what is now the state of Idaho in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many before statehood. The English discovered that they had more property rights and paid less taxes than in England.
They were considered some of the most desirable immigrants of the time. Many came from humble backgrounds and would rise to fame in Idaho. Gooding was raised in a working-class rural setting in England, but was ultimately elected as the seventh governor of the state. Today, people of English descent represent one-fifth of the entire state of Idaho and form a plurality in the southern part of the state.
Through the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) union, battles in the mining district were closely linked to a major miners' strike in Colorado. The fight culminated in the December 1905 assassination of former Governor Frank Steunenberg by WFM member Harry Orchard (also known as Albert Horsley). Orchard was allegedly enraged by Steunenberg's efforts as governor to quell the 1899 mining uprising after being elected on a pro-Labour platform. Pinkerton detective James McParland conducted the investigation into the murder.
In 1907, the secretary treasurer of the WFM, Big Bill Haywood, and two other WFM leaders were tried for conspiracy to assassinate Steunenberg, and Orchard testified against them as part of a settlement with McParland. The nationally publicized trial included the participation of Senator William E. Borah as prosecutor and Clarence Darrow representing the defendants. The defense team provided evidence that Orchard had been a Pinkerton agent and had acted as a paid informant for the Cripple Creek Mine Owners Association.
Darrow argued that Orchard's real motive in the murder had been revenge for a declaration of martial law by Steunenberg, prompting Orchard to bet a portion of the Hercules silver mine that would otherwise have made him rich. Others, Boise Basin, Wood River Valley, Stibnite, Blackbirg and Owyhee, are well above the other big producers. Atlanta, Bear Valley, Bay Horse, Florence, Gilmore, Mackay, Patterson and Yankee Fork ran in the order of ten to twenty million dollars, and Elk City, Leesburg, Pierce, Rocky Bar and Warren's make up the rest of Idaho's main mining areas that stand out in the sixty more or less noteworthy production regions. Idaho proved to be one of the states most receptive to the progressive agenda of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The state adopted progressive policies such as women's suffrage (189) and prohibition (191) before becoming federal law. Idahoans also strongly supported Free Silver. The Populist and Republican Silver pro-bimetalism parties of the late 1890s were particularly successful in the state. In 1992, there was a clash between U.
S. Bailiffs, the F, B, I. The ensuing shooting and death of an American,. Marshal, and Weaver's son and wife attracted national attention and generated considerable controversy regarding the nature of acceptable force on the part of the federal government in such situations.
In 2001, the Aria Nations complex, which had been located in Hayden Lake, Idaho, was confiscated as a result of a court case, and the organization moved out of state. Around the same time, Boise installed an impressive stone Human Rights Monument with a bronze statue of Anne Frank and quotes from her and many other writers who extol human freedom and equality. For thousands of years, and before European colonization, Idaho has been inhabited by native peoples. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the country of Oregon, an area of dispute between the United States, S.
Territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, but was included for periods in the Oregon Territory and the Washington Territory. Idaho was finally admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state. As part of the Pacific Northwest (and the associated Cascadia bioregion), Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. The north of the state, Idaho's relatively isolated Panhandle, is closely linked to eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific time zone, the rest of the state uses the mountain time zone.
The south of the state includes the Snake River Plain (which has most of the population and agricultural land). The southeastern part of the state incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous and contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains. The U.S.
Forest Service owns about 38% of Idaho's land, the highest proportion of any state. Industries important to the state economy include manufacturing, agriculture, mining, forestry and tourism. A number of science and technology companies are headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, and the state also contains the Idaho National Laboratory, which is the largest Department of Energy facility in the country. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato harvest, which accounts for about one-third of the national yield.
The state's official nickname is Gem State, a figurative expression that refers to Idaho's natural beauty. The origin of the name remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the U.S. Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, the name Idaho was suggested by George M.
Willing, a politician posing as an unrecognized delegate from the unofficial territory of Jefferson. Willing claimed that the name is derived from a term Shoshone meaning that the sun comes from the mountains or the jewel of the mountains, but it was later revealed that there was no such term and Willing claimed that he had been inspired to coin the name when he met a little girl named Ida. Since the name seemed to be invented, the U, S. Congress ultimately decided to name the area a Territory of Colorado when it was created in February 1861, but by the time this decision was made, the city of Idaho Springs, Colorado, had already been named after the Willing proposal.
Humans may have been present in the Idaho area for 14,500 years. Excavations at Wilson Butte Cave, near Twin Falls, in 1959, revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, which are among the oldest dated artifacts in North America. The predominant American indigenous peoples in the area included the Nez Percé in the north and the Shoshone of the North and West in the south. The most parsimonious explanation we think is that people came down the Pacific coast and, when they encountered the mouth of the Columbia River, they essentially found an exit route from this coastal migration and also found their first viable inland route to areas south of the ice sheet.
The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west, Nevada and Utah to the south, and Montana and Wyoming are to the east. Idaho also shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged, with some of the largest unspoilt natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres (930,000 ha), Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness areas in the continental United States.
Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with abundant natural resources and picturesque areas. The state has snow-capped mountain ranges, rapids, extensive lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River pass through Hells Canyon, the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls falls over cliffs from a height higher than Niagara Falls.
The vast majority of Idaho's population lives on the Snake River Plain, a valley that runs all of southern Idaho from east to west. The valley contains the major cities of Boise, Meridian, Nampa, Caldwell, Twin Falls, Idaho Falls and Pocatello. The plain served as an easy passage through the Rocky Mountains for settlers heading west on the Oregon Trail, and many settlers chose to settle in the area rather than risk the treacherous route through the Blue Mountains and Cascade Range to the west. The western region of the plain is known as the Treasure Valley, bounded between the Owyhee Mountains to the southwest and the Boise Mountains to the northeast.
The central region of the Snake River Plain is known as the Magic Valley. State personal income tax ranges from 1.6% to 7.8% in eight income brackets. Idahoans can apply for state tax credits for taxes paid to other states, as well as donations to Idaho State educational entities and some non-profit youth and rehabilitation institutions. The state sales tax is 6% with a very limited and selective local option of up to 6.5%.
Sales tax applies to the sale, rental or lease of tangible personal property and some services. Food is taxable, but prescription drugs are not. Accommodation in hotels, motels and campgrounds is subject to a higher rate (from 7% to 11%). Some jurisdictions impose sales taxes on local options.
Idaho has three transcontinental railroads. The Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) connects the Idaho Panhandle to Seattle, Portland and Spokane to the west, and Minneapolis and Chicago to the east. BNSF travels through Kootenai, Bonner and Boundary counties. The Union Pacific Railroad crosses northern Idaho, enters from Canada through Boundary and Bonner, and continues to Spokane.
Canadian Pacific Railway uses Union Pacific Railroad tracks in northern Idaho, transporting goods from Alberta to Spokane and Portland, Oregon. Amtrak's Empire Builder crosses northern Idaho, with its only stop at Sandpoint. Montana Rail Link also operates between Billings, Montana and Sandpoint, Idaho. Union Pacific Railroad also crosses southern Idaho and travels between Portland, Oregon, Green River, Wyoming and Ogden, Utah, serving Boise, Nampa, Twin Falls and Pocatello.
Government of Idaho has monopoly on alcohol; Idaho State Liquor Division. Because of this, Idaho legislators are considered citizen legislators, which means that their position as legislators is not their primary occupation. However, the session can be extended if necessary and, often,. The terms for the Senate and the House of Representatives are two years.
Legislative elections are held every year. The Idaho Legislature has been continuously controlled by the Republican Party since the late 1950s, although Democratic legislators are routinely elected from Boise, Pocatello, Blaine County and the North Panhandle. After the Civil War, many Democrats from the Midwest and South moved to Idaho territory. As a result, the first territorial legislatures were solidly controlled by Democrats.
On the contrary, most territorial governors were appointed by Republican presidents and were Republicans. This led to sometimes bitter clashes between the two sides, including a field war with Democrats backing pastors and Republicans, ranchers, which ended in the Diamondfield murder trial of Jack Davis. In the 1880s, Republicans became more prominent in local politics. The title of the example video will go here for this video BOISE, Idaho On July 4, Idahoans will celebrate our country's independence, but the day before marks an important date in the gem state as well.
Exactly 130 years ago, on July 3, 1890, Idaho officially became the 43rd state in the U.S. Keith Petersen, retired Idaho state historian, says statehood came after 26 years of Idaho as U.S. Ultimately, Congress passed an Idaho State Constitution just before the Day. But it was not an easy task, said Petersen.
There was a lot going on in Idaho territory in the 1880s. Petersen pointed out that the state of the gems we know today was almost very different. But when Cleveland left office, the situation changed. Because members of the LDS church in Idaho came in large numbers to vote, and voted mainly as Democrats in those days, Republicans passed the Idaho oath of the test, also known as the Mormon Oath of Proof.
Achieving statehood was important for several reasons, including securing more funding for the then territory, but it also allowed Idaho to have representation at the national level for the first time. As a territory, Idaho had a non-voting member of Congress, but that changed when Idaho became a state during President Benjamin Harrison's term. The next 130 years took Idaho from a fledgling state with only 88,000 Idaho residents to the gem state we know today, with a population of nearly 1.8 million. Notifications can be turned off at any time in the browser settings.
Everyone was ready to use the Idaho name for that territory, but just as they were about to make the decision, they discovered that Idaho wasn't really an Indian name. The Idaho Department of Transportation is the government agency responsible for Idaho's transportation infrastructure, including operations and maintenance, as well as planning for future needs. Southern Idaho, including the greater Boise area, Idaho Falls, Pocatello and Twin Falls, is located in the mountain time zone. After Idaho became a territory, legislation was enacted in Lewiston, the capital of the territory of Idaho at the time.
In any case, part of the Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create the territory of Idaho in 1863. .